Musique: Touche pas à mon Noël ! (Whose Christmas is it anyway ?)

White Christmas

Mel TorméMalheur à la jeunesse américaine, qui doit vivre dans une atmosphère si empoisonnée et ne remarque même pas le poison qu’elle avale quotidiennement. Das Schwarze Korps (hebdomadaire des SS, le 25 avril, 1940)
C’est ainsi qu’une innocente souris peut cacher, dans son ombre, un grand fauve hitlérien. Georges Sadoul
L’écrivain Iman Kurdi dans le journal émirati Khaleej Times estime que l’identité nationale française est peut-être mise en péril, mais plus « par les Starbucks et McDonald’s » qui fleurissent à Paris, que par les jeunes musulmans. Le Monde
By 1926, Cole Porter had already written several Broadway scores, “none of which had, well, scored,” poet and critic David Lehman points out. But one enchanted evening that year, while dining in Venice with Noel Coward, Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, Porter confided that he had finally figured out the secret to writing hits. “I’ll write Jewish tunes,” he said. “Rodgers laughed at the time,” Lehman writes in his new book, A Fine Romance: Jewish Songwriters, American Songs (Schocken/Nextbook), “but looking back he realized that Porter was serious and had been right.” The minor-key melodies of such famed Porter tunes as “Night and Day,” “Love for Sale” and “I Love Paris” are “unmistakably eastern Mediterranean,” Rodgers wrote in Musical Stages, his autobiography. Porter’s songs may have had a Yiddish lilt to them, but they are squarely within the mainstream of the great American songbook: that wonderful torrent of songs that enlivened the nation’s theaters, dance halls and airwaves between World War I and the mid-1960s. What’s more, as Lehman acknowledges, many of the top songwriters—Cole Porter included—were not Jewish. Hoagy Carmichael, Johnny Mercer, Duke Ellington, George M. Cohan, Fats Waller, Andy Razaf, Walter Donaldson and Jimmy McHugh come to mind right away. And yet it is a remarkable fact that Jewish composers and lyricists produced a vastly disproportionate share of the songs that entered the American canon. If you doubt this, consider, for example, a typical playlist of popular holiday records—all of them by Jewish songwriters (with the exception of Kim Gannon): “White Christmas” (Irving Berlin); “Silver Bells” (Jay Livingston and Ray Evans); “The Christmas Song,” a.k.a. “Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire” (Mel Tormé); “Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!” (Sammy Cahn and Jule Styne); “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer” (Johnny Marks); and “I’ll Be Home for Christmas” (Walter Kent, Kim Gannon and Buck Ram). Warble any number of popular tunes, say “Summertime” (George and Ira Gershwin), “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” (Jerome Kern and Otto Harbach) or “A Fine Romance” (Kern and Dorothy Fields)—and it’s the same story. Then of course, there are the Broadway musicals, from Kern’s Show Boat to Rodgers and Hammerstein’s South Pacific to West Side Story, by Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim. Smithsonian
Many were the children or grandchildren of people who escaped from the pogroms of Europe and other depredations, and reinvented themselves as Americans. In the process they kind of reinvented America itself as a projection of their ideals of what America could be. We have a secular religion in the United States that transcends all individual religions. This is not entirely an unmixed blessing, but I think that’s exactly what the songwriters were doing. (…) There are many examples of Depression-era songs that staked out common ground in hard times, like « On the Sunny Side of the Street » or « Brother, Can You Spare a Dime »—often with a mixture of melancholy and resolute good cheer. In 1939 you get The Wizard of Oz, a fantasy about this magical land over the rainbow, on the other side of the Depression. With Oklahoma! in 1943, at the height of the war, when the chorus picks up Curly’s refrain—We know we belong to the land / And the land we belong to is grand!—you feel this great surge of patriotism. « God Bless America » made its debut on the radio with Kate Smith on November 11, 1938, exactly 20 years after the armistice ending World War I. And it was the same day that people read the newspapers about the terrible pogrom known as Kristallnacht in Germany and Austria. While the two had no direct relation, it’s impossible to see the two facts as entirely unconnected. Irving Berlin created a song that people authentically like and turn to in time of crisis, as in the days after 9/11/01. The Nazis did battle not only with tanks and well-trained soldiers and the Luftwaffe. They also had a cultural ideology, and we needed something for our side to fight back. That song was one way that we fought back. (…) To me, there’s something explicitly or implicitly Judaic about many of the songs. Musically, there seems to be a lot of writing in the minor key, for one thing. And then there are instances in which lines of songs closely resemble musical phrases in the liturgy. For example, the opening verse of Gershwin’s « Swanee » seems to come out of the Sabbath prayers. « It Ain’t Necessarily So » echoes the haftorah blessing. It’s no coincidence that some of the top songwriters, including Harold Arlen and Irving Berlin, were the sons of cantors. There are also other particularities about the music, bent notes and altered chords, that link this music to the Judaic tradition on the one hand, and to African-American forms of musical expression on the other. At the same time, the lyric writers set store by their wit and ingenuity, and one could argue that a particular kind of cleverness and humor is part of the Jewish cultural inheritance. David Lehman

In memoriam, Ike Aronowicz, capitaine de l’Exodus …

“White Christmas” (Irving Berlin), “The Christmas Song” (Mel Tormé), “Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!” (Sammy Kahn), “I’ll Be Home for Christmas” (Walter Kent), “Silver Bells” (Jay Livingston), “Santa Baby” (Joan Ellen Javitz), “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer” (Johnny Marks), “Winter Wonderland” (Felix Bernard) …

En ces temps étranges où, au nom de l’identité des derniers arrivés, il faut s’excuser ou cracher sur sa propre identité nationale …

Pendant que nos pères Noël de gouvernants font les poches de nos enfants et petits-enfants pour acheter, dans une surenchère de cadeaux toujours plus coûteux, nos votes et nos suffrages …

Et où, dans un florilège savamment construit, Le Monde nous ressort, via un Arabe vivant en Angleterre mais écrivant dans un journal émirati, la vieille scie anti-américaine d’une France bien plus mise en péril « par les Starbucks et McDonald’s » qui fleurissent à Paris que par les jeunes musulmans …

Retour, en cette veille de Noël (dont les symboles sont aussi régulièrement dénoncés) et via un article du NYT, sur d’autres immigrés dont la musique a fini par incarner l’esprit de Noël non seulement pour des générations d’Américains mais pour le monde entier.

Pour découvrir qu’après Hollywood : les Goldwyn, Mayer, frères Warner, Cohn (Columbia), Zukor (Paramount), Fritz Lang, Ernst Lubitsch, Erich von Stroheim, Greorge Cukor, Cecil B. DeMille, Stanley Donen, Otto Preminger, Hedy Lamarr, frères Marx, Douglas Fairbanks (né Douglas Ullman), Fred Astaire (né Frederick Austerlitz), Danny Kaye, Paulette Goddard, Kirk Douglas, Michael Douglas, Dustin Hoffman, Robert Wise, Jerry Lewis, Mel Brooks, Sydney Pollack, Milos Forman, Stanley Kubrick, Steven Spielberg, Oliver Stone, Woody Allen, Scarlett Johansson, Natalie Portman, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Kate Hudson, Gwyneth Paltrow, Joaquin Phoenix, Winona Ryder, Alicia Silverstone, Tori Spelling, Patricia Arquette, Lisa Bonet, Phoebe Cates, Robert Downey Jr., David Duchovny, Daryl Hannah, Lisa Kudrow, Jennifer Jason Leigh, ulia Louis-Dreyfus, Cindy Margolis, Sarah Jessica Parker, Sean Penn, Adam Sandler, Rob Schneider, Ben Stiller, Rosanna Arquette, Jamie Lee Curtis, Carrie Fisher, Jerry Seinfeld, Howard Stern, Debra Winger , James Caan, Richard Dreyfuss, Harrison Ford, Goldie Hawn, Henry Winkler, Elliott Gould, Harvey Keitel, Leonard Nimoy, Gene Wilder, Lauren Bacall, Lenny Bruce, Tony Curtis, Paul Newman, Shelley Winters, Peter Falk, Lee J. Cobb, Sammy Davis Jr., Marilyn Monroe (par conversion)…

La BD ou les dessins animés: Joe Shuster et Jerome Siegel (Superman), Joe Simon (Captain America), Bill Finger et Bob Kane (Batman), Stan Lee (Spider-Man, X-Men, The Hulk, Fantastic Four), Jack Kirby (Captain America, Hulk), Max Fleischer (Popeye, Betty Boop), Ralph Bakshi (Fritz the Cat), Art Spiegelman (Maus), Harvey Kurtzman, Al Jaffee, Al Feldstein, Will Elder et William Gaines (MAD) …

La musique de comédies musicales ou classique: les Isaiah Berlin (né Israel Isadore Baline et auteur par ailleurs du semi-officiel hymne national américain « God Bless America »!), Jerome Kern, Richard Rodgers, Harold Arlen, Hammerstein, Gershwin (né Jacob Gershowitz), Bernstein, Copland, Glass …

Sans parler du rock ou du jazz: un certain Robert Zimmerman, Elvis Presley, David Marks (Beach boys), Simon & Garfunkel, Jefferson Airplane, The Mamas & the Papas, Robby Krieger, Phil Spector, Melanie (Safka), Joey Ramone, Randy Meisner, Randy Newman, Lou Reed, Iggy Pop, (né James Osterberg) Beastie Boys, Pat Benatar (née Patricia Mae Andrzejewski), Blood, Sweat & Tears, David Lee Roth, Blue Öyster Cult, Kiss, Guns N’ Roses, The Cars, Harry Connick, Jr., Country Joe and the Fish, Neil Diamond, Chris Isaak, Janis Ian, Billy Joel, Carole King (née Carole Klein), Carly Simon, Linda Ronstadt, Courtney Love, Juice Newton (née Judith Kay Cohen), Pink, Barbra Streisand, Leonard Cohen, Abel Meeropol (« Strange fruit » pour Billie Holliday), Benny Goodman …

Mais aussi (on vous parle même pas de la science!) du mythe même du « creuset » américain …

La plupart des chansons les plus populaires de Noël ont aussi été écrites par ces drôles d’immigrés qui, dans leur quête d’intégration, sont devenus plus américains que les Américains, jusqu’à en incarner les valeurs les plus profondes…

Mais aussi les plus universelles (ou les plus « commerciales » ou « impérialistes » comme diraient nos amis du Monde et du Monde diplo)…

Supplantant, avec leurs rengaines de centre commercial et leurs histoires de père Noël et de traineaux …

(imposées au monde, comme chaque petit Français le sait, par la méchante multinationale Coca Cola!) …

Nos bons vieux standards chrétiens, censés célébrer (on n’y échappera décidément jamais)…

l’anniversaire d’un certain prophète juif!

Whose Christmas Is It?
Michael Feinstein
The New York Times
December 18, 2009

ABOUT 10 years ago, I was doing a weekend of Christmas concerts, accompanied by a fine regional symphony in California. The first night went well, I thought, with a program of holiday classics that seemed beyond reproach. The song choices were about as controversial as a Creamsicle.

But I was wrong. Minutes before I walked onstage the second night, a nervous representative of the orchestra board appeared in my dressing room to tell me that my program was “too Jewish.” Wow, I thought, who knew that orchestra management played practical jokes on artists moments before their shows? My laughter turned to disbelief when the stuttering gentleman said that there had, in fact, been complaints.

Between numbers the night before, I had mentioned that almost all the most popular Christmas songs were written by Jews and then riffed on the idea that the Gentiles must have written mostly Hanukkah songs. The audience was enthusiastic, so I assumed it was somebody on the board who had been offended.

Just as I was informing the unlucky messenger that the second night’s show would be “even more Jewish,” places were called. I bounded onstage in time to belt out the opening lines of “We Need a Little Christmas,” wearing a fake grin that barely concealed my rage. After a while, the music calmed me down, and I was able to merge with the holiday spirit encoded in the Jerry Herman classic. The Jewish Jerry Herman Christmas classic.

The evolution of Christmas is reflected to a degree in its music. As the holiday has become more secular, so have its songs, with religious and spiritual compositions largely supplanted by the banalities of Rudolph, sleigh bells and Santa. Many Christians feel that the true essence of Christmas has been lost, and I respect that opinion. It must be difficult to see religious tradition eroded in the name of commerce and further dissipated by others’ embrace of a holiday without a sense of what it truly means to the faithful.

Yet I also hope that those who feel this encroachment will on some level understand that the spirit of the holiday is universal. We live in a multicultural time and the mixing, and mixing up, of traditions is an inevitable result. Hence we have the almost century-old custom of American Jews creating a lot more Christmas music than Hanukkah music.

If you look at a list of the most popular Christmas songs, you’ll find that the writers are disproportionately Jewish: Irving Berlin’s “White Christmas,” “The Christmas Song” (yes, Mel Tormé was Jewish), “Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!,” “I’ll Be Home for Christmas,” “Silver Bells,” “Santa Baby,” “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer” and “Winter Wonderland” — perennial, beloved and, mostly, written for the sheet music publishers of Tin Pan Alley, not for a show or film. (Two notable exceptions: “White Christmas,” introduced in “Holiday Inn,” and “Silver Bells,” written for “The Lemon Drop Kid.”)

You’ll notice that certain famous Jewish songwriters are conspicuously absent from this list. Why? Unlike the Tin Pan Alley songwriters, who churned out songs to order on every conceivable subject for their publishers, writers like Jerome Kern, the Gershwins, Richard Rodgers and Harold Arlen mainly created songs for musical plays and films, and unless a story line required a holiday song they had no need to write one. When they did try one outside the framework of a show, it rarely had the same spark. Rodgers and Hammerstein’s “Happy Christmas, Little Friend,” recorded by Rosemary Clooney in the ’50s, is sadly lethargic. Even Clooney couldn’t recall it when asked to sing it 30 years later. Or so she claimed.

In my holiday shows, I’m always looking for novel expressions of the season, and when I introduce a new song I don’t usually think about the religion of its creator. That said, I’m always pleased to discover a surprising juxtaposition. It doesn’t take Freud to figure out that the sugarplums, holly and mistletoe all tap into a sense of comfort, longing, security and peace that so many fervently desire; that we all wish the clichés were true. As Jews, Christians, Muslims, Mormons, Buddhists and everything in between, we are all more alike than we are different. That’s something to celebrate.

Michael Feinstein is a musician and the author of “My Life in Song.”

Voir aussi:

Jewish Songwriters, American Songs

Poet David Lehman talks about the brilliant Jewish composers and lyricists whose work largely comprises the great American songbook

Jamie Katz

Smithsonian

By 1926, Cole Porter had already written several Broadway scores, “none of which had, well, scored,” poet and critic David Lehman points out. But one enchanted evening that year, while dining in Venice with Noel Coward, Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart, Porter confided that he had finally figured out the secret to writing hits. “I’ll write Jewish tunes,” he said.

“Rodgers laughed at the time,” Lehman writes in his new book, A Fine Romance: Jewish Songwriters, American Songs (Schocken/Nextbook), “but looking back he realized that Porter was serious and had been right.” The minor-key melodies of such famed Porter tunes as “Night and Day,” “Love for Sale” and “I Love Paris” are “unmistakably eastern Mediterranean,” Rodgers wrote in Musical Stages, his autobiography.

Porter’s songs may have had a Yiddish lilt to them, but they are squarely within the mainstream of the great American songbook: that wonderful torrent of songs that enlivened the nation’s theaters, dance halls and airwaves between World War I and the mid-1960s. What’s more, as Lehman acknowledges, many of the top songwriters—Cole Porter included—were not Jewish. Hoagy Carmichael, Johnny Mercer, Duke Ellington, George M. Cohan, Fats Waller, Andy Razaf, Walter Donaldson and Jimmy McHugh come to mind right away.

And yet it is a remarkable fact that Jewish composers and lyricists produced a vastly disproportionate share of the songs that entered the American canon. If you doubt this, consider, for example, a typical playlist of popular holiday records—all of them by Jewish songwriters (with the exception of Kim Gannon): “White Christmas” (Irving Berlin); “Silver Bells” (Jay Livingston and Ray Evans); “The Christmas Song,” a.k.a. “Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire” (Mel Tormé); “Let It Snow! Let It Snow! Let It Snow!” (Sammy Cahn and Jule Styne); “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer” (Johnny Marks); and “I’ll Be Home for Christmas” (Walter Kent, Kim Gannon and Buck Ram). Warble any number of popular tunes, say “Summertime” (George and Ira Gershwin), “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes” (Jerome Kern and Otto Harbach) or “A Fine Romance” (Kern and Dorothy Fields)—and it’s the same story. Then of course, there are the Broadway musicals, from Kern’s Show Boat to Rodgers and Hammerstein’s South Pacific to West Side Story, by Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim.

Lehman, 61, editor of The Oxford Book of American Poetry and the annual Best American Poetry series, has been captivated by this music and its ingenious lyrics since childhood. “It was the songbook to which I responded, not the Jewish identity of its authors,” he writes, “though this was a source of pride to me, the son of refugees.” A Fine Romance, then, reads as a sort of love letter from a contemporary poet to a generation of composers and wordsmiths; from a devoted son to his late parents, who escaped the Nazi onslaught just in time, as his grandparents had not; and finally, to America itself, which allowed the great songwriters and the author himself to flourish in a world of freedom and possibility unlike anything their families had left behind. Lehman spoke with writer Jamie Katz.

Songs like Irving Berlin’s « God Bless America » and Harold Arlen and Yip Harburg’s « Over the Rainbow » virtually defined a national ethos. Do you feel the Jewish songwriters created a kind of religion of American-ness?

In a way they did. Many were the children or grandchildren of people who escaped from the pogroms of Europe and other depredations, and reinvented themselves as Americans. In the process they kind of reinvented America itself as a projection of their ideals of what America could be. We have a secular religion in the United States that transcends all individual religions. This is not entirely an unmixed blessing, but I think that’s exactly what the songwriters were doing.

You talk about how popular song helped uplift and unify Americans through the crises of the 1930s and ’40s. On a more subtle level, you suggest that Jewish songwriters were pressing back against the forces that sought to annihilate them. How so?

There are many examples of Depression-era songs that staked out common ground in hard times, like « On the Sunny Side of the Street » or « Brother, Can You Spare a Dime »—often with a mixture of melancholy and resolute good cheer. In 1939 you get The Wizard of Oz, a fantasy about this magical land over the rainbow, on the other side of the Depression. With Oklahoma! in 1943, at the height of the war, when the chorus picks up Curly’s refrain—We know we belong to the land / And the land we belong to is grand!—you feel this great surge of patriotism. « God Bless America » made its debut on the radio with Kate Smith on November 11, 1938, exactly 20 years after the armistice ending World War I. And it was the same day that people read the newspapers about the terrible pogrom known as Kristallnacht in Germany and Austria. While the two had no direct relation, it’s impossible to see the two facts as entirely unconnected. Irving Berlin created a song that people authentically like and turn to in time of crisis, as in the days after 9/11/01. The Nazis did battle not only with tanks and well-trained soldiers and the Luftwaffe. They also had a cultural ideology, and we needed something for our side to fight back. That song was one way that we fought back.

Apart from the fact that so many songwriters were Jewish, what is it that you consider Jewish about the American songbook?

To me there’s something explicitly or implicitly Judaic about many of the songs. Musically there seems to be a lot of writing in the minor key, for one thing. And then there are instances in which lines of songs closely resemble musical phrases in the liturgy. For example, the opening verse of Gershwin’s « Swanee » seems to come out of the Sabbath prayers. « It Ain’t Necessarily So » echoes the haftorah blessing. It’s no coincidence that some of the top songwriters, including Harold Arlen and Irving Berlin, were the sons of cantors. There are also other particularities about the music, bent notes and altered chords, that link this music to the Judaic tradition on the one hand, and to African-American forms of musical expression on the other. At the same time, the lyric writers set store by their wit and ingenuity, and one could argue that a particular kind of cleverness and humor is part of the Jewish cultural inheritance. It may well be that people will argue this point, and there are people who know a great deal more than I do about music. You have to trust your instincts and your judgment. But I don’t think it’s a hanging offense if you’re wrong. And I think it’s a good idea to be a little provocative and stimulate a conversation about such matters.

As a poet, how do you regard the artistry of the great lyricists?

The best song lyrics seem to me so artful, so brilliant, so warm and humorous, with both passion and wit, that my admiration is matched only by my envy. I think what songwriters like Ira Gershwin, Johnny Mercer and Larry Hart did is probably more difficult than writing poetry. Following the modernist revolution, with T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound, we shed all sorts of accoutrements that had been thought indispensable to verse, like rhyme and meter and stanzaic forms. But these lyricists needed to work within boundaries, to get complicated emotions across and fit the lyrics to the music, and to the mood thereof. That takes genius.

Take « Nice Work If You Can Get It » by George and Ira Gershwin. There’s a moment in the verse where it goes: The only work that really brings enjoyment / Is the kind that is for girl and boy meant. Now, I think that’s a fantastic rhyme. Just a brilliant couplet. I love it. Or take « Love Me or Leave Me, » from 1928, with lyrics by Gus Kahn and music by Walter Donaldson: Love me or leave me and let me be lonely / You won’t believe me but I love you only / I’d rather be lonely than happy with somebody else. That is very good writing, with lovely internal rhymes. And you’re limited to very few words; it’s like writing haiku. But they rhyme and can be sung. Well, I say that’s pretty good.

Voir de même:

White Christmas (Isaiah Berlin, 1942)

I’m dreaming of a white Christmas
Just like the ones I used to know
Where the treetops glisten,
and children listen
To hear sleigh bells in the snow

I’m dreaming of a white Christmas
With every Christmas card I write
May your days be merry and bright
And may all your Christmases be white

I’m dreaming of a white Christmas
With every Christmas card I write
May your days be merry and bright
And may all your Christmases be white

Voir enfin:

The Christmas Song (Mel Tormé/ Robert Wells, 1944)

Chestnuts roasting on an open fire
Jack Frost nipping at your nose
Yuletide carols being sung by a choir
And folks dressed up like Eskimos

Everybody knows a turkey and some
Mistletoe help to make the season bright
Tiny tots with their eyes all aglow
Will find it hard to sleep tonight

They know that Santa’s on his way
He’s loaded lots of toys and goodies
On his sleighAnd ev’ry mother’s
Child is gonna spy to see if
Reindeer really know how to fly

And so, I’m offering this
Simple phrase to kids from
One to ninety-two
Altho’ it’s been said many times
Many ways; « Merry Christmas to you »

Love and joy come to you
And to you, your carol to you
And God bless you and send you a happy new year
God send you a happy new year

5 Responses to Musique: Touche pas à mon Noël ! (Whose Christmas is it anyway ?)

  1. jcdurbant dit :

    Intéressant prolongement, dans le NYT de Noël, sur la souffrance des « orphelins juifs », en ces périodes de fêtes de fin d’année, suite à leur reconversion …

    « For thousands of people who convert to Judaism, Christmas is a difficult day of balancing what was once intimately theirs but now represents, in some ways, the essence of what they are giving up. The holiday brings up questions that often have less to do with theology than with culture and custom. Siblings wonder: Can we still give you gifts? Parents ask: Can I still fill your stocking? If the answers are no, does that signal something akin to betrayal? (…)

    many people speak of a loss of Christmas (…) conversion often causes separation in families and Christmas becomes that divide (…) It is one of many issues where they have to negotiate the thicket of multiple communities (…) It is an opportunity to identify with their newly chosen community. They begin to appreciate the Christmas season as being a part of the minority » …

    J'aime

  2. jcdurbant dit :

    On est rassurés: pas d’examen le jour de Noël ni le jour de Pâques

    C’est une tradition française depuis toujours ! C’est le Général de Gaulle le premier qui avait pris des décisions pour que les fonctionnaires français qui étaient de religion juive ou de religion musulmane puissent, lorsqu’il y avait des fêtes religieuses importantes, ne pas travailler ces jours-là … les principaux bénéficiaires ne sont pas du tout les musulmans mais les Français de religion juive, qui sont très intransigeants sur la question des fêtes religieuses. En réalité il y a très peu de musulmans qui profitent de cette situation. Je rappelle qu’il n’y a pas d’examen le jour de Noël ni le jour de Pâques …

    http://www.rtl.fr/actu/politique/ramadan-fillon-defend-le-report-d-epreuves-du-bac-pour-l-aid-une-tradition-qui-remonte-a-de-gaulle-7783988184

    J'aime

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